In the second chapter of the Manchu translation of the 水滸傳 (Shui hu zhuan/Water Margin), there are quite a few occurences of the word leolo. Since the word cannot be found in the lexicographical tools I consulted (Hauer, Norman, Zakharov, 新满汉大词典) nor online (in the texts at Manc.hu, here or elsewhere) I thought it would be nice to list these examples here for future reference.

tereci cen da ineku hanci isinjifi leolo be faidan faidanbuha manggi. (p. 44b, l. 1)

geren leolo burulaha. (p. 45b, l. 2)

yang cun alin i ing ni dolo tefi bisirede leolo alanjime jifi hendume. (p. 45b, l. 5)

gūsin yan aisin belhefi juwe leolo be takūrame. dobori biya de (1). ši jin de benebuhe. juwe leolo ši jin i gašan de isinjifi. duka de forire jakade. gašan i niyalma tucifi leolo be dosimbuha. juwe leolo dosifi aisin be alibufi hendume. (p. 47b, l. 3-6)

geli leolo be takūrame benebure jakade. (p. 47b, l. 10)

As can be seen, the word roughly means “rank and file”. So far, I have only found it used to designate outlaws but maybe it can also be applied to any kind of low rank subordinate. I guess further reading will clarify that.

(1) While inenggi šun de “in the daytime” has found its way into dictionaries, this does not seem to be the case for its counterpart dobori biya de.


6 thoughts on “Leolo

    1. You can find it on the BNF website. But since many of their Manchu manuscripts are mislabeled, it is to be found under Monggo fafun-i bithe.

      The writing is beautiful and the translation reads quite easily, I hope you’ll enjoy it!


    1. Thanks!
      I just had a look at the text at ctext.org and it seems that leolo indeed renders 小嘍羅.
      I found it interesting, supposing the Manchu translator was working with a Chinese text similar to the one at ctext.org, that he didn’t borrow the whole Chinese expression, leaving out xiao (and of course the borrowing might have happened much earlier in Manchu and not be his).


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