Reading Johan Elverskog’s Our Great Qing and finding it very interesting. His main point is a reassessment of the centuries old paradigm , i. e. that the Qing used Buddhism to “ensure the undying loyalty of the Mongols” (p. 3). He shows how things are more complex than that, starting with the fact that when Khorchin Mongols turned to the Jurchen ruler Nurhaci for protection, there were “no Manchus, no Mongols and no Buddhist words or rites” involved (p. 14).This reminded me of the following extract of the Sacred Instructions of Nurhaci. Here, Khalkha and Urut (1) Mongols are scolded, maybe not for being Buddhists but at least for being too easy-going on robbers and other troublemakers.
Daicing gurun i Taidzu dergi hūwangdi i enduringge tacihiyan/大清太祖高皇帝聖訓 (duici debtelin, f°8b-10a)
abkai fulingga i nadaci aniya. sahaliyan indahūn. juwe biyai sahaliyan morin inenggi. monggoi urut gurun i minggan i jergi juwan nadan beile. kalkai ba ba i taiji. meni meni harangga jušen irgen be gajime dahame jihe manggi (2). han yamun de tucifi. amba sarin sarilafi. tacibume hese wasimbuhangge. meni gurun i banjire doro. tondo akdun. šajin i jurgan be jafafi. erdemungge sain niyalma be gidarakū wesimbume. ehe facuhūn niyalma be dere banjirakū šajin i gamame ofi. hūlha. holo ehe facuhūn akū. jugūn de tuheke jaka be saci. tunggiyeme gaifi ejen de bumbi. meni gurun i banjire doro uttu ofi. abkai gosire be alihabi. suweni monggo gurun i niyalma. gala de erihe jafafi fucihi be hūlambime. hūlha holo be nakarakū banjire be abka wakalafi. suweni beise i mujilen be gemu facuhūn obufi. gurun jobombikai. te suwe mimbe baime jihe be dahame. erdemungge sain niyalma oci. erdemui gung de dorolome ujire. erdemu akū niyalma oci. jihe gung de sain ujire. hūlha holo. ehe mujilen be ume deribure tenteke ehe mujilen be waliyarakū oci. meni šajin i gamambi kai sehe:
“The way of living of our (i. e. Manchus) gurun is loyalty and trust. Having grasped the duty of the doctrine, we do not oppress the virtuous and good persons but promote them. And since we practice a doctrine that does not have regard for the evil and confused person, there are no robbers and thieves, evil and confused persons. If someone sees something on the road, he picks it up and gives it back to its owner. Because this is the way of living of our gurun, we have received heavenly love. Someone of your gurun, Mongols, takes his rosary in hand and invokes Buddha. Heaven blames those who live and do not stop robbers and thieves, the minds of your beise become all confused and certainly the gurun suffers.”
(1) Are these the Urad?
(2) At this early date, only groups of Khalkha Mongols had submitted to Nurhaci (cf. Cambridge History of China, vol. 09, p. 30-31). The text mistakenly gives the impression that the Khalkhas as a whole (kalkai ba ba i taiji) submitted on this occasion.