Dai yuwan gurun i suduri (3)

Going on with the Manchu History of the Yuan dynasty. Today extracts feature a sorrowful Gengis Khan, faithful amban and frightened bandits.
I’m pretty sure that there are things I misunderstood, so feel free to point any mistakes.(Klaproth, Chrestomathie mandchou, p. 147-150).taidzu temujin cooha gaifi ciyei liyei aiman be dailame genefi: taidzu temujin i cooha facuhūrafi taidzu temujin morin ci tuheke be: taidzu temujin i fejergi borji gebungge amban ini yaluha morin de taidzu temujin be tukiyeme yalubufi tucibuhe: tere inenggi abka nimarame ofi tatan be falabufi. taidzu temujin orho i dolo dedufi manggi: muhūli. borji gebungge juwe amban. taidzu temujin i oilo jafu be sarame jafafi geretele ilihai bethe be guribuhekū: nimanggi šumin emu udu ci bihe: tereci jobolon ci guwefi amasi jihe:Taidzu Temujin took his army and went to war against the Ciyei-liyei tribe. His army became confused and Taidzu Temujin fell down from his horse. One of his amban, Borji, took him on his horse and spirited him away. Snow was falling this day and Taidzu Temujin had sent (his) camp back. After he had laid down on the grass, Muhūli and Borji, two of his amban, spread a blanket over him and, standing until dawn, they did not move a foot. The snow was a few feet deep when, having shaken off his sorrow, he went back.

so o gebungge niyalma niyamniyara gabtara mangga bihebi: taidzu temujin ambula gosime mergen seme gebulehe: taidzu temujin hūlha be ucarafi teni afaki serede: juwe niyehe deyeme jimbi: taidzu temujin. so o be niyehe gabta sere jakade: so o jabume. amila be gabta sembio: emile be gabta sembio: taidzu temujin hendume: amila be gabta: so o uthai amila be gabtame tuhebuhe: tere be hūlha sabufi golofi hendume: ere niyalma uttu gabtara mangga de. deyere gasha hono tucirakūkai niyalma be ai hendure sefi. afahakū burlame genehe:

There was a man named So-o who was skilled with a bow, both on foot and on a horse. Taidzu Temujin loved him a lot and had named him mergen. One day, when Taidzu Temujin met bandits and wanted to attack them, two ducks flew by. Taidzu Temujin said to So-o: “Shoot the duck”. So-o answered him: “Do you want me to shoot the male or the female duck?”. Taidzu Temujin said: “Shoot the male duck”. Then So-o shot and brought down the male duck. When the bandits saw that, they were frightened, saying: “This man is such a skilled shooter, ducks flying low never go out. What would he do to a man?” (1). Refusing the fight, they fled away.

emu inenggi taidzu temujin gūsin funcere moringga be gaifi. alin i dorgi mukei yohoron be generede: taidzu temujin ambasai baru hendume: ere bade ehe hūlha be ucaraha de ainambi: muhūli jabume. mini beye alime gaimbi dere: goidahakū hūlha uthai bujan i dorgici tucifi gabtarangge aga agarai adali: muhūli beri tucibufi gabtame ilan niyalma be goibuha: hūlhai da fonjime si we: muhūli jabume muhūli kai sefi. morin i enggemu be sufi. enggemu be jafafi taidzu temujin be dalime tucibuhe: tereci hūlha inu genehe:

One day, Taidzu Temujin took with him more than thirty horsemen. As they passed along a waterway in the mountain, Taidzu Temujin told his amban: “What should we do if we meet bandits here?”. Muhūli answered: “I will deal with them myself”. Not long after, bandits came out of the woods and sent arrows like rain. Muhūli took his bow, shot and hit three men. The chief of the bandits asked him: “Who are you ?”. Muhūli answered: “I am Muhūli”. Having removed his saddle, he protected Taidzu Temujin with it and spirited him away. The bandits left too.

tere fonde geren aiman toktoro unde ofi. borji gebungge amban dobori dari šurdeme kedereme yabume. taidzu temujin elheken bahafi amhambihe: taidzu temujin ini muhūli. borji. borogūl cilagūn gebungge duin amban be tondo baturu seme tukiyeme duin guluk seme gebulehe: taidzu temujin geli miyei li ci aiman be dailame genefi afara dulimbade. edun nimanggi burašame ofi. taidzu temujin i borji gebungge amban. batai dolo dosifi taidzu temujin be baici baharakū: borji tereci nuktei bade jifi tuwaci. taidzu temujin aifini bederefi sejen i dolo amhahabi: taidzu temujin ini borji isinjiha be donjifi hendume: abka minde aisilahangge kai sehe:

In these days, all the tribes were not pacified yet. One amban named Borji was on duty every night so that Taidzu Temujin could sleep peacefully. Taidzu Temujin bestowed his four amban the title ‘loyal hero’ and called them ‘the four guluk‘. Taidzu Temujin went to war against the Miyei-li-ci tribe. In the middle of the fighting, because snow and wind blew, Taidzu Temujin’s amban Borji entered enemy lines and could not find Taidzu Temujin anymore. When Borji arrived at the camp, Taidzu Temujin had come back long before and was sleeping in a chair. When Taidzu Temujin learnt that Borji was back, he said: “Heaven has helped me!”.

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(1) I’m not sure I got this sentence right :

ere niyalma uttu gabtara mangga de.
when this man (is) such a skilled shooter,

deyere gasha hono tucirakūkai
ducks flying low never go out (=escape?)

niyalma be ai hendure
much less a man. (= if he can shoot even ducks, how would a man escape him?). On the use of ai hendure, cf. Hauer, Handwörterbuch, p. 8.

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The 八歲兒 : a Manchu-Korean primer

palseaFor a short time this month, the BNF had put online a copy of the P’alsea (八歲兒), a Manchu-Korean primer and one of the “Four books of Qing studies” (1). It seems to have now been removed from their website but here is a transcription of the text. Designed to teach basic Manchu, it features a child prodigy from the Han dynasty who leaves his parents to attend a meeting of 5000 scholars summoned by the emperor. There he answers every question the emperor asks him and is granted a title.

(The division of sentences follows the printed edition)

八歲兒
julgei han gurun i fonde
duin mederi gemu genggiyen
jakūn hošo ini cihai elhe
tere fonde
han bithe arafi hendume
abka fejile gurun i dorgi de
bayan yadahūn bodorakū
geren bade bithe ulhire šusai sebe
abka duka de bithe cendeme jio
erdemu mergengge be
sain gebu be bumbi sehe
tere fonde
cing mu hiyan hecen de tehe
ulin yadara limu sere niyalma i jui
jakūn se de
ama eme de
dosime fakcara doro arafi
jeterengge akū
muke ihan i jibca etufi
ududu inenggi yabume
jiyang giyang hecen de isinafi
sunja minggan šusai sonjoro ton de
jakūn se jui dosime
sunja minggan šusai amala ilihabi
han tuwafi fonjime hendume
tere amala iliha
ajige jui si ainaha niyalma
jakūn se jui hanci genefi
wesimbume hendume
ajige niyalma seibeni inenggi
enduringge han genggiyen hese wasimbure dahame
bithe cendeme jihe
han donjifi
dembei injefi hendume
ajige jui si se ajigen
ai weile be sain jabumbio
jakūn se jui hanci genefi
wesimbume hendume
ajige niyalma enduringge han
fonjire weile be sain jabumbi dere
han gūnifi baibi niyalma waka seme hendume
abka de uju bio
jakūn se jui jabume
abka de uju bi
han fonjime hendume uju bi seme adarame sambi
jakūn se jui jabume
šun dergi ici dekdefi
wargi ici tuhembi
tuttu ofi
uju bi seme saha
han geli fonjime hendume
abka de šan bio
jakūn se jui jabume
abka fejile de
bulehen gasha wesihun jilgan i guwembi
dergi abka wesihun jilgan seme urgunjeme donjihabi
tere fonde
abka šan akū oci
ai šan i donjimbi
han geli fonjime hendume
abka de angga bio
jakūn se jui jabume
julgei fonde emu niyalma
abka de wesiki seme
ilan jergi tafukū be sahafi
tafame deribure de
tafukū de gidafi bucehebi
tere fonde
abka angga akū oci
ai angga i injembi
han geli fonjime hendume
abka de bethe bio
jakūn se jui jabume
abka de bethe bi
han fonjime hendume bethe bi seme adarame sambi
jakūn se jui jabume
julgei julesi gūsin ilan abka be dendere fonde
bethe akū oci
ai bethe i feliyeme
dendeci ombihe
han geli fonjime hendume
julergi geneci
ai golo seme bio
jakūn se jui jabume
julergi geneci
mederi golo seme bi
han fonjime hendume mederi golo bi seme adarame sambi
jakūn se jui jabume
wargi geneci
wargi ergi mederi wargi de
dabsun hecen seme bi
tere be dabsun i sahabiheo
adarame dabsun hecen sembi
dergi geneci
dergi ergi mederi dergi de
menggun hecen seme bi
tere be menggun i sahabiheo
adarame menggun hecen sembi
amargi geneci
amargi mederi amargi de
tugi hecen seme bi
tere be tugi i sahabiheo
adarame tugi hecen sembi
han gisun akū tehebi
jakūn se jui
han i juleri ilifi
amba jilgan i hūlafi hendume
isaha sunja minggan šusai dorgi de
erdemungge niyalma bici
hūdun tuci
han i juleri gisun cendeki seme
ilan mudan hūlaci
sunja minggan šusai dorgi de
emu niyalma inu tucifi
gisun cendere de
erdemungge niyalma akū
tuttu ofi
jakūn se jui be
amba mergen arafi
abka fejile gurun i dorgingge
amba golo ejen seme tukiyembi
han še bithe selgiyefi
tumen weihun i sui be gemu guwebume
dasara be sain
ice niyengniyeri de
aga silenggi erileme wasimbi
edun dacibe
mooi dube bijarakū
jugūn de yabure niyalma
beri sirdan jafarakū
hecen duin duka yooselarakū
abka fejile taifin ojoro dahame
jakūn se jui i
wesihun han gurun i gisun be ere dahame wajiha

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(1) About these, see Choe Y., ‘Manchu Studies in Korea‘, p. 91-94.

Treatise On the Response of the Tao

The BNF holds a copy of a very interesting work, the Tai šang ni acabume karulara bithe (太上感应篇, Puyraimond n°229). This work, a Taoist (1) classic, is followed by a commentary and dozens of illustrative short stories forming the Ging be yaruha iletu baita. These tales could be, I feel, of interest to readers/learners of Manchu since they provide a wealth of easy material (2).There are various reasons for this :
– the stories are generally short enough to be read and enjoyed in one go
– the language is rather simple
– the fact that they were written in order to convey a moral teaching means that they have a very straightforward and predictible storyline.

One of the stories (卷 1, f°7a-f°8b) runs as follows :

gi jeo hecen i dorgi sioi halangga niyalmai sargan ini booi aha sargan jui be takūrafi aisin i sifikū be da ejen de bene seme jafabufi unggihe. tere sargan jui uju de sisifi genere de jugūn i andala nade tuheke be hecen be tuwakiyara li halangga coohai niyalma bahafi uthai tere sargan jui be dahalame genere babe tuwaci tere sargan jui emu niyalmai boode dosika. goidahakū ekšeme tucifi giyang ni dalin de genefi teni muke de fekuki serebe coohai niyalma ekšeme ilibufi fonjiha manggi. tere sargan jui hendume ejen hehe i banin hatan. teike mimbe sifikū bene seme takūraha bihe. jugūn i andala tuhefi waliyabuha. mimbe urunakū tatame wambi. tatame wabure anggala neneme bucere de isirakū sehe. tere coohai niyalma ini baha sifikū be uthai amasi buhe. tere sargan jui ambula baniha bufi genehe. amala tere sargan jui mei lin i dohon i bai irgen i niyalma de sargan ohobi. emu inenggi tere coohai niyalma siden i bithe be jafafi dohon be. teni doki serede sargan jui takafi hacihiyame ini boode gamafi nure jeku dagirafi ulebume bisirede gaitai dohon i teisu gaijara jilgan be donjifi tucifi tuwaci dore cuwan irufi cuwan de tehe niyalma gemu bucehe bi. tere li halangga coohai niyalma: sargan jui bibuhe turgun de tuttu bahafi guwehebi.

In the town of Gi Jeo, there was a woman of the Sioi family. She gave a golden hairpin to her servant and sent her saying ‘Bring it back to its owner’. The girl put the hairpin in her hair and it fell while she was walking. A city guard named Li took it and followed the girl. He saw her entering some house. Not long after, she came out in a hurry and went to the river bank, wanting to jump into the water. Quickly, the soldier stopped her and questioned her. The girl said: ‘My mistress has a violent temper. A moment ago, she sent me to deliver a hairpin but on the way, it fell and got lost. No doubt she will beat me to death. Better to die than be beaten to death!’ The soldier gave her back the hairpin he had taken. The girl thanked him heartily and went. Later she became the wife of someone from the Mei Lin ford. One day, the soldier was on a public errand and when he wanted to cross the river, the girl recognized him and urging him, she took him into her house. After she had prepared wine and food and while they were eating, suddenly they heard a voice. When they looked, (they saw that) the ferry-boat had sunk and that every one on it had died. The soldier named Li could escape it because the girl had kept him back.

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(1) But a Taoism strongly influenced by Buddhism if the Wikipedia page is to be believed. Interestingly, one of the stories was published in 1859 by Stanislas Julien and is mentioned in Gorelova’s Manchu Grammar (following Pashkov?) as a ”Confucius tale”, without reference.

(2) Stanislas Julien published a translation of the whole text in 1835. But it was made on a Chinese original and the stories do not seem to be the same (or at least not in the same order) as the ones in the Manchu version. Quite possibly the Manchu translation was made on a different Chinese edition than the one used by Julien.

Être Mandchou en 1727

Voici les titres des dix chapitres du Tacibure hesei bithe, oeuvre de l’empereur Yongzheng et traçant aux Mandchous une ligne de conduite à suivre. Il est intéressant que le chapitre 5 soit consacré aux travaux des champs. Il s’agissait alors de sauver le système des Bannières de la banqueroute tout en améliorant les conditions de vie de leurs membres (1). On peut également noter qu’il n’est pas fait mention de la langue mandchoue.

ama eme be hiyoošulaci acambi:
ahūn ungga de deocileci acambi:
gašan falga be hūwaliyambuci acambi:
juse deote be tacibuci acambi:
usin i weile de hūsutuleci acambi:
niyamniyara gabtara be urebuci acambi:
malhūn hibcan be wesihuleci acambi:
arki nure be dababurakū oci acambi:
jiha efire be nakaci acambi:
becunume tantanure be targaci acambi:
Il faut faire montre de piété filiale envers ses parents
Il faut agir avec déférence envers ses aînés
Il faut vivre en harmonie avec son village et son clan
Il faut instruire ses enfants et ses cadets
Il faut travailler dur dans les champs
Il faut s’exercer au tir à l’arc à cheval et debout
Il faut mettre la frugalité à l’honneur
Il ne faut pas s’enivrer
Il faut renoncer aux jeux d’argent
Il faut cesser de se quereller

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(1) Cf. Elliott, The Manchu Way, p. 316, qui décrit ce plan comme « ayant échoué de manière spectaculaire ».