abkai fejergi de hūwaliyasun

olcGospel according to St. Luke 2, 1-20, from Lipovtsov’s translation of the New testament in Manchu.

tere fonde afuguset kesar han hese wasimbufi. abkai fejergi boigon anggala be bodome dangse arabuha: geren irgen gebu alibure jalin meni meni harangga hoton de genehe: iosib. dabit han i enen ofi. inde tusuhe. beye jursu oho mariya be gaifi. inu gebu alibure jalin. galiliyeya goloi harangga nasaret hoton ci jurafi. iodeya goloi harangga. dabit han i betliyem gebungge hoton de genehe: ce tubade bisirede. mariya i dedure biya oho. uthai aji jui banjifi. managa de hūsifi. huju i dolo tebuhengge. cohome tatara boode sula giyalan be bahakū turgun: tubai ba na de ulha be tuwakiyara niyalma dobori idurame adun be tuwakiyaha bihe. gaitai abkai ejen i anggel abka ci tesei juleri ebunjihe. abkai ejen i ferguwecuke elden cembe fosoko be dahame. ce ambula gūwacihiyalafi berekbi. anggel ceni baru hendume. ume gelere. bi suwende. geren niyalma be urgunjebure amba urgun i baita be alanjiha: enenggi dabit han i hoton de suwembe aitubure ejen geristos banjiha. erei temgetu ojorongge. suwe genefi. managa de hūsibuha. huju i dolo deduhe huhuri jui be bahafi sabumbi sehede. holkonde abkai ejen be tukiyeceme. ten i dergi abka de bisire abkai ejen de maktacun. abkai fejergi de hūwaliyasun. geren niyalma de gosire kesi seme hendure ton akū abkai cooha ere anggel i sasa oho: tereci geren anggel abka de wesike manggi. ulha tuwakiyara niyalma ishunde hendume. betliyem hoton de genefi. abkai ejen i mende tacibuha tubade tucinjihe baita be tuwaki sefi. uthai ekšeme genefi. tubade bisire mariya. iosib. jai huju i dolo deduhe huhuri jui be bahafi sabuha. erebe sabufi. uthai geren niyalma de. ere huhuri jui be jorime cende donjibuha babe giyan giyan i alaha: ulha tuwakiyara niyalmai alaha be donijha geren i dolo ferguwehekūngge akū: mariya nememe ere gese gisun be mujilen de tebufi ejehe: ulha tuwakiyara niyalma. cende alaha songkoi gemu sabuha donjiha be dahame. abkai ejen be tukiyeme maktame amasi mariha:

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Anatomy in Manchu

anatomie

This is maybe old news but I just found that the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle has digitalized a complete copy of the Ge ti ciowan lu bithe, Parrenin’s translation of a 18th (end of the 17th) c. European anatomical treaty.

The BNF also has a copy of this work available for download but it does not seem to be complete. Readers interested in this text can now read it in its entirety.

The two copies seem to sometimes differ in wording as well as in how the content is organized.

Dai Yuwan gurun i suduri (2)

Bodancar’s descendant Temujin (i. e. Gengis Khan) befriends Botu.tere fonde i ciyei liyei sy halai botu gebungge niyalma niyamniyara mangga bihebi: taidzu temujin ini fu el ce dan gebungge niyalma be hūlhame takūrafi. yelkune birade tehe botu i jakade jihe manggi: botu. taidzu temujin i takūraha niyalma be safi abka yamjiha seme emu dobori dedubufi honin wafi ulebuhe: fu el ce dan i yaluha morin šadara jakade botu ini emu sain morin be taka bufi yalubufi amasi unggihe: fu el ce dan jifi botu i ambula kundulehe be. taidzu temujin de wacihiyame alaha manggi: taidzu temujin ambula urgunjeme ini non tiyei mu lūn be botu de bure seme angga aljaha botu uthai ini uksun i yei bu jiyan dai gebungge niyalma be takūrafi taidzu temujin i jakade jifi hendume. bi donjici horon erdemu nonggihangge tugi hetefi šun be sabuha gese: niyengniyeri edun de. gecehengge wendere adali be urgunjeme wajirakū: taidzu temujin fonjime. botu de ulga udu bi: yei bu jiyai dai jabume. morin gūsin bi: tere morin be dulin jafan benjiki sembi: taidzu temujin hendume sadun jafafi de. ulin be gisurerengge hūda hūdašara adali kai: julgei niyalmai henduhengge: emu mujilen ojorongge yargiyan i mangga sehebi: bi te abkai fejergi be gaifi sembi (1): suweni i ciyei liyei halai irgen botu be dahame minde tondoi hūsun buhede wajiha kai: ulin be ainu gisurembi sefi: non be botu de buhe: hoidahakū dzacilatai: dzajuha. toyei gebungge niyalma ilan tumen cooha be gaifi afanjime jidere be. botu donjifi niyalma takūrafi. taidzu temujin de alanggiha: ini beye cooha gaifi toyei se be dailame etefi. terei aika jaka be gemu tabcilame gaifi irgen be dahabuha:

In these days, there was a member of the I-ciyei-liyei-sy clan named Botu who was very skilled at mounted archery. Taidzu Temujin called Fu-el-ce-dan and sent him [to Botu]. When he reached the Yelkune river where Botu lived, Botu saw him and, because the sun was setting, he invited him for the night. He killed a sheep and gave him to eat. Because Fu-el-ce-dan’s horse was tired, Botu lent him a good horse and sent him back. When Fu-el-ce-dan arrived and told Taidzu Temujin everything about how Botu had treated him with respect, Taidzu Temujin rejoiced greatly and promised to give his younger sister Tiyei-mu-lūn to Botu. Botu sent someone of his own clan to Taidzu Temujin, Yei-bu-jiyan-dai. When he arrived before Taidzu Temujin, he said: “I heard that your power and your virtue have increased. It is as if a cloud left, revealing the sun ; like frost melting in a spring wind. I rejoice to no end”. Taidzu Temujin asked: “How much livestock does Botu have?”. Yei-bu-jiyai-dai answered: “Thirty horses. This horse, he sends to you as half of the bridal gifts”. Taidzu Temujin said: “When people become in-laws, speaking of goods is like doing business. People of old have said that being of one heart is really difficult. Now I … (1) and the people of your I-ciyei- liyei clan follow Botu. Should he loyally give me his strength, that would be it! Why speak of goods?” He gave his younger sister to Botu. A short time after, Dzacilatai, Dzajuha and Toyei took 3000 men and went to attack him. When Botu learnt about it, he sent someone to Taidzu Temujin to let him know that. He took his troops himself and defeated Toyei and the others. He seized what belonged to them and had their people submit.

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(1) bi te abkai fejergi be gaifi sembi. Not sure about how this part should be translated. I wonder if a reading gaiki sembi would not make more sense: “Now I want to take the world, with you following Botu and Botu giving me his strength, it would be done”.

Harlez, Manuel, p. 89, gives an example of ellipsis involving a similar construction : coohabe gaifi sembi, “he says (that it was done) by raising an army”. Applying this to our text : “now, I say (it is done) by seizing the world”. Does this refer to the “being of one heart” mentioned just before? If so, the whole extract could be summarized thus: “Being of one heart is truly difficult, now I say this is done by seizing the world. With you following Botu and Botu giving me his strength, this would be done”.

Dai yuwan gurun i suduri (1)

Prompted by Fresco Sam-Sin’s tweet of December 4th, I thought this would not be an unfitting moment to post part of a translation I made some time ago of various bits of the Yuan dynasty official history (1646). The beginning of this work can be found in Klaproth, Chrestomathie mandchou, 1828, p. 121-192.The text makes for an interesting read. The blend of pastoral life, martial prowess and pride somehow reminds me of the Icelandic sagas.

dai yuwan gurun i da gebu monggo: monggo gurun i unggu mafa bodancar hala ci u wen: bodancar i eme i gebu alūn gūwa: alūn gūwa. dobon mergen be gaifi banjihangge juwe haha jui: amba jui gebu bugū hatagi: jacin jui gebu buhūci salci: dobon mergen akū oho manggi. alūn gūwa anggasi ofi emu dobori tolgin de šanggiyan elden monggo boo de dosifi. aisin i boconggo enduri ubaliyafi deduhe besergen i baru jidere de. alūn gūwa gelehei hetefi. tereci beye de ofi bodancar be banjiha: bodancar arbun hiru niyalma ci encu: nomohon ujen: gisun komso: booi urse beliyen sere jakade: alūn gūwa hendume: ere jui beliyen waka: amaga jalin i juse omosi urunakū amba wesihun ombi sehe: alūn gūwa akū oho manggi: geren ahūta booi aika jaka be dendere de isirakū ofi. bodancar hendume: wesihūn fusihūn. bayan yadahūn gemu hesebungge kai: ulin be ai seme gisurembi sefi: damu emu sirga morin yalufi geneme. geli ton alan gebungge bade isinafi tere bade uthai tehe:

The original name of the Yuwan dynasty was ‘Mongol’. The ancestor of the Mongol dynasty is Bodancar, of the clan Ci U Wen. The name of Bodancar’s mother was Alūn Gūwa. She married Dobon Mergen and gave birth to two male children. The oldest one’s name was Bugū Hatagi and the youngest one Buhūci Salci. After Dobon Mergen died, Alūn Gūwa became a widow. One night, she had a dream in which she saw a white light enter the mongol house and change itself into a golden spirit. As he approached her bed, Alūn Gūwa was scared and bowed (1). She became pregnant and gave birth to Bodancar. Bodancar’s appearance was different than that of other men. He was quiet, serious (2) and did not speak much. When the servants called him ‘dull-witted’, Alūn Gūwa said : “This child is not dull-witted. No doubt, (his) children and grand-children of future generations will be great and revered” (3). When Alūn Gūwa died, his older brothers shared everything in the house between themselves and Bodancar got nothing (4). He said : “Honor and humility, wealth and poverty, all is determined by fate (5). Why speak of goods?” He then climbed a light bay horse and departed. He arrived in a place named Ton Alan and settled there.

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(1) The text printed in Klaproth’s Chrestomathie makes it sometimes hard to distinguish between g and h. In his Manuel (1884, p. 172), de Harlez reads getefi, “she woke up”.

(2) Can nomohon ujen be understood not as two adjectives “quiet and serious” but as a construction mirroring gisun komso?

(3) De Harlez translates “Children and grand-children (…) will say : ‘he is great and honorable'”. I have to admit that I do not understand how he reaches this translation.

(4) My translation does not follow the Manchu text closely because, while the meaning seems clear, I am not sure of how -re de isirakū should be understood here. Is it literally “he did no went to the sharing” or is it an idiomatic use (“to be as good as”/”to be enough”)?

(5) De Harlez reads gesebungge and translates “the same”.